• Vincent, Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2011

Autor: Vincent, Jean-Louis (Ed.)
Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine
1st Edition., 2011,  831 p. 122 illus., 12 in color.

About the book:

The Annual Update compiles the most recent developments in experimental and clinical research and practice in one comprehensive reference book. The chapters are written by well recognized experts in the field of intensive care and emergency medicine. It is addressed to everyone involved in internal medicine, anesthesia, surgery, pediatrics, intensive care and emergency medicine.

Table of Contents
I Mechanisms of Sepsis and Multiple Organ Failure
The Role of Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE)
in Infection
M.A.D. van Zoelen, A. Achouiti, and T. Van der Poll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
The Endocannabinoid System: A Janus-faced Modulator of Inflammation
in the Intestinal Microcirculation
C. Lehmann, V. Cerny, and M. Matejovic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Remote Ischemic Conditioning against Ischemia/reperfusion Injury
P. Meybohm and B. Bein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Hypoxia-inducible Factors and the Prevention of Acute Organ Injury
S.N. Heyman, S. Rosen, and C. Rosenberger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
II Coagulation System
Are Microparticles Reliable Deleterious Effectors in Septic Coagulopathy?
X. Delabranche, F. Toti, and F. Meziani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
The Inflammatory Potential of Fibrin(ogen) and its Degradation Products
C. Jennewein, N. Tran, and K. Zacharowski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Iron Deficiency in Critically Ill Patients: Highlighting the Role of Hepcidin
N. Heming, P. Montravers, and S. Lasocki . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia in the ICU: An Overview
Y. Sakr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
III Acute Respiratory Failure
The Next Generation of ALI Genetics: Insights into Pathophysiology
N.J. Meyer and J.D. Christie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Use of B-type Natriuretic Peptides in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic
Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Requiring Ventilatory Support
F. Dachraoui, L. Ouanes-Besbes, and F. Abroug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Acute Lung Injury in the ICU: Focus on Prevention
I. Galvin and N.D. Ferguson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
V
IV Endotracheal Intubation
Rapid Sequence Intubation: Overview and Myths Versus Facts
M.F. Yazbeck, J. Finkelstein J, and R.P. Dellinger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Research Priorities in Oral Care for Endotracheally-intubated Patients
S. Labeau and S. Blot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
V Ventilator Issues
Pros and Cons of Assisted Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Lung Injury
M. Gama de Abreu, P.R.M. Rocco, and P. Pelosi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Can ‘Permissive’ Hypercapnia Modulate the Severity of Sepsis-induced
ALI/ARDS?
G. Curley, M. Hayes, and J.G. Laffey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
NAVA: Why, When, Who?
C. Sinderby and J. Beck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Therapeutic Aerosols in Mechanically Ventilated Patients
S. Ruickbie, A. Hall, and J. Ball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
VI Cardiac Crises
Cardiac Mitochondria and Heart Failure: The Chicken or the Egg
S. Scolletta, B. Biagioli, and P. Giomarelli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Evolving Rationale for Minimally-interrupted Chest Compressions
during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
J.G. Wigginton, A.H. Idris, and P.E. Pepe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
VII Renal Aspects
Hypoalbuminemia as a Risk Factor for Acute Kidney Injury
M. Joannidis and C.J. Wiedermann . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Developing Biological Markers: The Case of Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinaseassociated
Lipocalin in Acute Kidney Injury
A.A.N.M. Royakkers, P.E. Spronk, and M.J. Schultz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury in Cardiorenal Syndromes
A.K. Roy, B.A. McMahon, and P.T. Murray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Cardio-renal Syndromes: A Complex Series of Combined Heart/Kidney
Disorders
C.Y. Goh and C. Ronco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Blood Purification in Sepsis and Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients
P.M. Honor´e, N. Dobbeleire, and O. Joannes-Boyau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
VIII Fluids
The Lymphatic Vasculature as a Participant in Microvascular Exchange
J. Scallan and V.H. Huxley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
VI Table of Contents
The Interstitium and Lymphatics have an Important Role in Edema
Generation during Sepsis
Ø.S. Svendsen, R.K. Reed, and H. Wiig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Fluid is a Drug that can be Overdosed in the ICU
S.L. Goldstein . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Crystalloid or Colloid Fluids: A Matter of Volumes?
R.J. Trof and A.B.J. Groeneveld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Meaning of Pulse Pressure Variation during ARDS
J.-L. Teboul and X. Monnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
The Fluid Challenge
M. Cecconi, B. Singer, and A. Rhodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Facing the Challenge: A Rational Strategy for Fluid and Volume Management
K. Heckel, M.S. Strunden, and D.A. Reuter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
IX The Microcirculation
Mitochondrial Function in Septic Shock
M.A. Puskarich and A.E. Jones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
How Can We Use Tissue Carbon Dioxide Measurement as an Index
of Perfusion?
E. Futier, J.-L. Teboul, and B. Vallet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Use of Non-invasive Tissue Oxygen Saturation Monitoring to Assess
Cardiovascular Insufficiency
X. Garcia, F.X. Guyette, and M.R. Pinsky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
The Microcirculation of the Critically Ill Pediatric Patient
A.P.C. Top, R.C. Tasker, and C. Ince . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
X Cardiovascular Monitoring
Heart Rate as Prognostic Marker and Therapeutic Target in MODS
S. Nuding, K. Werdan, and H. Ebelt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Hemodynamic Monitoring in Cardiogenic Shock
J. Poelaert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Non-invasive Estimation of Left Ventricular Filling Pressures by Doppler
Echocardiography
F. Clau-Terr´e, J. Rello, and A. Evangelista . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
Hemodynamics from the Periphery
S. Romagnoli, S.M. Romano, and D. Payen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Totally Non-invasive Continuous Cardiac Output Measurement with the
Nexfin CO-Trek
A. Perel and J.J. Settels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Cardiac Output Monitoring: An Integrative Perspective
J.A. Alhashemi, M. Cecconi, and C.K. Hofer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
Table of Contents VII
XI Perioperative Medicine
Perioperative Hemodynamic Optimization
N. Brienza, L. Dalfino, and M.T. Giglio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Perioperative Myocardial Ischemia/reperfusion Injury: Pathophysiology
and Treatment
S.G. De Hert and P.F. Wouters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
XII Infection and Sepsis
A New Approach to Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Based on the PIRO
System
I. Martin-Loeches, M. Ulldemolins, and E. Diaz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Selective Decontamination of the Digestive Tract and Antibiotic Resistance
E. de Jonge and E.H.R. van Essen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
New Treatment Options against Gram-negative Organisms
M. Bassetti, F. Ginocchio, and M. Mikulska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
Antifungal Therapy in the ICU: The Bug, the Drug, and the Mug
J.M. Pereira and J.A. Paiva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516
Mycobacterial Sepsis and Multiorgan Failure Syndrome
S. Jog, B. Pawar, and D. Patel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3): Possible Role in Critical Care Medicine
T. Mauri, B. Bottazzi, and A. Pesenti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
Role of IgM- and IgA-enriched Immunoglobulins in the Treatment of Sepsis
and Septic Shock
G. Berlot, M.C. Vassallo, and F. Tartamella . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550
XIII Liver Failure
Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Patients with Cirrhosis and Ascites
S. Piano, F. Morando, and P. Angeli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
Acute-on-chronic Liver Failure: An Entity Still in Search of Itself?
L. Verbeke, W. Meersseman, and W. Laleman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576
XIV Trauma and Emergency Medicine
Cocaine Intoxication
J.E. Hollander and A.M. Chang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
Airway Management for Major Trauma
C. Hommers and J. Nolan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599
Goal-directed Coagulation Management in Major Trauma
H. Schoechl, W. Voelckel, and C. Solomon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611
XV Neurological Aspects
Understanding Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome
S. Legriel, F. Pico, and E. Azoulay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631
VIII Table of Contents
Prediction of Neurological Outcome after Cardiac Arrest
C. Sandroni, F. Cavallaro, and M. Antonelli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654
Neuroprotection in Sepsis by Complement Inhibition and Immunoglobin
Therapy
F. Esen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664
Ethics in Disorders of Consciousness
A. Demertzi, S. Laureys, and M.-A. Bruno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
XVI Metabolic Disorders and Nutrition
Metformin and Lactic Acidosis
S. Vecchio, P. Papa, and A. Protti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685
Energy Goals in the Critically Ill Adult
S.L. Peake, E. Ridley, and M. Chapman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 694
XVII ICU Organization and Management
Frailty: A New Conceptual Framework in Critical Care Medicine
R.C. McDermid and S.M. Bagshaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711
Access Block and Emergency Department Overcrowding
R. Forero, S. McCarthy, and K. Hillman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720
Triage of High-risk Surgical Patients for Intensive Care
J. Sobol and H. Wunsch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 729
Transportation of the Critically Ill: Moving in the Right Direction
P.G. Brindley and T. O’Leary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741
Should we Still Order Chest X-rays in the ICU?
V. Ioos, A. Galbois, and B Guidet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753
The Effect of Light on Critical Illness
R. Castro, D.C. Angus, and M.R. Rosengart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766
Context Information in Critical Care
G. Murias, B. Sales, and L. Blanch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781
XVIII The Future
Ambient Intelligence in the Intensive Care Unit: Designing the Electronic
Medical Record of the Future
B.W. Pickering, J.M. Litell, and O. Gajic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793
Simulation in Critical Care Medicine: The Next Ten Years
P.G. Brindley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803
Intensive Care Medicine: Where We Are and Where We Want to Go?
R.P. Moreno and A. Rhodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813
Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823
 

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